Maswali ya Wanafunzi Kuhusu Vimondo

asteroid impact
Siku ya Ijumaa tarehe 01/10/2021 wanafunzi wa shule ya msingi ya Ilboru katika klabu yao ya sayansi walikuwa na kipindi kilichohusu vimondo na walifurahi sana kusikiliza kipindi cha Macho Angani kilichohusu Vimondo.
 
Kipindi hiko kiliwapa  kiu ya kutaka kujua zaidi mambo mbali mbali kuhusu vimondo vya angani. Mwalimu wao Eliatosha Maleko, aliwaonyesha pia picha mbali mbali za kimondo alizozipakua kwenye mtandao.  Wanafunzi walifurahi sana maana ni vitu wanavyovipenda nyakati za usiku.
 
Baada ya kipindi hicho wanafunzi hao walikuwa na maswali haya:-
Joyce Peter aliuliza:
 
1. Kwanini tunaona Vimondo nyakati za usiku lakini mchana hatuwezi kuona Vimondo, ina maana mcha huwa havipo katika anga letu?
 
Jibu: Vimondo vinakatiza angani wakati wote mchana na usiku. Lakini hatuwezi kuviona kutokana na mwanga ang’avu wa Jua. Hii ni sawa na kuwasha tochi mchana, ambapo ni vigumu sana kuuona mwanga wake, lakini ikiwa usiku kwenye giza ni rahisu kuuona mwanga wa tochi. 
 
2. Vimondo vimeundwa na vitu gani? nani kwanini vilishika huwa vinaonekana kama mawe yenye moto?
 
Jibu: Hakika vimondo ni mawe yenye moto! Yaliyotengenezwa kwa miamba na mavumbi. Vimondo pia vimetengenezwa kwa mavumbi lakini zaidi ni barafu linalotokana na maji. Hivi ndivyo vilivyopelekea kufanyika kwa mfumo wa Jua, mabaki ya zamani kabisa pale nguvu ya uvutano ilipoleta mavumbi katika mfumo wetu wa Jua na kutengeneza vitu mbali mbali hadi tukawa na sayari na miezi yake. (ambapo mingi ni vimondo vilivyovutwa na nguvu ya uvutaji ya sayari). Kama ampapo ukiwa kwenye gari katika mwendo wa kasi unahisi upepo unapiga kioo cha mbele na kupunguza mwendo wa gari, hewa pia inakinzana na kudondoka kwa kimondo na kusababisha msuguano. Msuguano mkubwa unaosababisha mwamba kuyeyuka na kuanza kuwaka moto. Na hiki ndicho sisi hukiona. Fahamu kuwa gari huwa linakimbia kwa spidi ya kilimita 100 kwa saa, vimondo hukimbia katika spidi ambayo ni mara kumi hadi elfu zaidi yake kwa saa.
 
3. Vimondo vina athari gani kwa viumbe hai ikiwa vitadondoka ardhini?
 

Jibu: Vimondo vingi ni saizi ya chembe ya mchanga na mara nyingi havifiki ardhini kabla havijaungua kabisa. Ndio, ni chembe ya mchanga  yenye moto sana unayoweza kuiona kutoka mbali! Lakini kwa vimondo vikubwa (saizi ya mpira wa tenesi au mpira wa miguu au zaidi) vinaweza kufikia ardhini na kuleta athari. Tunajua kwamba mijusi mikubwa ya dinosaurs ilipotea kwa sababu ya athari kubwa ya kimondo miaka milioni 65 iliyopita. Kimondo kikitua ardhini kinaweza kusababisha moto mkubwa kuenea kote Duniani, ukifuatiwa na vumbi la moshi kwa miaka mingi ambalo linazuia miale ya Jua.

Makala: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2021/02/new-theory-behind-asteroid-that-killed-the-dinosaurs/

Karibu dinosaurs wote zilikufa, ukiacha ndege tunaowaona leo (ndio, ndege ndio dinosaurs wa mwisho waliobaki). Kutokana na kuondoka kwa dinosaurs mamalia walipata nafasi ya kuzaliana zaidi na kukua zaidi.

Maji mengi kwenye sayari yetu yalifika (na yanaendelea kuwasili) kupitia athari za vimondo (vyenye maji kidogo ) na comets (zenye maji mengi). Ikiwa kimondo ni kidogo, kinaongeza kiasi kidogo tu cha chuma na vitu vingine kwenye anga letu na ardhini ikiwa.

Nimeambatanisha picha mbili: a) Picha ya kuchoraji juu ya athari ya kimondo. Ikiwa kitaikumba sayari yetu na kuharibu sayari nzima. (juu) b) Picha ya shimo la kimondo lililopo, Arizona (kaskazini tu mwa ninakoishi) ambalo ni shimo maarufu juu ya athari ya kimondo kikiipiga Dunia.

Meteor Crater, ArizonaNi maarufu kwa sababu limehifadhiwa vizuri. Kimondo kilichofanya shimo hili kubwa, kilikuwa wa kipenyo cha mita chache tu, lakini kilisafiri kwa mwendo wa kasi sana.

Makala: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_Crater

Wakati vimondo vinaingia kwenye anga letu kila siku, na athari ya hivi karibuni, inayostahili kukumbukwa ilikuwa ni miaka michache iliyopita:

Kifungu: https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki / Chelyabinsk_meteor

Miriam John aliuliza:
4. Kimondo kinapodoka ardhini kinabakia juu ya ardhi au vipo vinavyozama ndani ya ardhi na ni kwanini?
 
Jibu: Kimondo kikipiga Dunia, huvunjika katika vipande vidogo vidogo. Unaweza kuvipata hivi vipande kama unajua ni nini haswa unakitafuta!
 
Peter Elieta aliuliza:
 
5. Vimondo vinafaida gani katika maisha ya mwanadamu au viumbe hai wengine?
 
Jibu: Vinaongeza madini ya chuma, maji, shauku na furaha katika maisha yetu. Bila vimondo, usingekuwa unauliza maswali haya mazuri!
 
6. Vimondo vinakuwa na ukubwa gani? Na je ni kwanini vipisi vinavyoungua havianguki na kufika chini kwani kinachoungu kinakuwa na madini gani?
 
Jibu: (Angalia jibu hapo juu)
 
7. Kwanini mvua ya Vimondo hutokea mwezi Desemba kila mwaka na sio miezi mingine je nini siri iliyoko katika mwezi huo?  
 
Jibu: Kuna vimondo vingi vinavyokatiza usiku kwa mwaka mzima. Kadri Dunia inavyopita katika njia yake, inakatiza katika mavumbi na mabaki ya miamba huko angani, kwa mwaka hadi mwaka, miongo na hata miongo, kama ambavyo wewe unaweza kuwa unaenda kumtembelea ndugu yako wakati wa likizo. 
 
Maelezo kamili na orodha ipo hapa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_shower
 
8. Belinda Allen aliuliza: Je kimondo/ Vimondo vina umuhimu gani katika dunia yetu?
 
Jibu: (Angalia jibu hapo juu)
 
9.Tuliwahi kusikia katika habari mbalimbali kuwa kuna kimondo kinachokaribia kuigonga dunia yetu je? Je chenyewe hakikuungua kilitoka katika njia ya kuja duniani? au kimeishia wapi?
 
Jibu: Wanaanga wanafuatilia kwa ukaribu vitu zaidi ya maelfu ambavyo vinazunguka karibu na sayari njia ya sayari yetu (obiti) Dunia. Vipo ambavyo vinakuja karibu na Dunia kila mwaka, vingine kila baada ya miongo kadhaa au hata karne. Kwa kuangalia vitu hivi kwa ukaribu (kwa kutumia darubini na radar) tunaweza kufahamu njia zake na kutabiri kama vitaigonga Dunia au lah.
 
Makala: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_object
 
Kuna vimondo vichache ambavyo tuna wasi wasi navyo, hivyo njia za ulinzi zimekuwa zikitengenezwa ili kuvisukuma mbali hata kidogo kwa kutumia rocketi na miale na kubadilisha njia zao kuelekea Duniani.
 
Kwa maneno haya machache, tunapenda kuelezea hisia zetu za dhati kwa masaada mkubwa mnaotupa kwa kushirikiana na mwalimu wetu katika kujenga uwezo wetu wa kufahamu kuhusu anga letu na vitu mbali mbali vilivyopo angani.
 
Hakika haya ni maswali ya udadi yaliyojengwa na shauku ya kutaka kujua na kufahamu zaidi.
 
On Friday 01/10/2021 students from Ilboru Primary School learned about meteorites through Eyes in the Sky Swahili Podcast known as Macho Angani by Ingo Koll.
 
The podcast gave them a thirst to know more about meteorites in the heavens above. Pictures downloaded by their teacher Mr. Eliatosha Maleko helped them to imagine how the meteor looks. Students were very happy because are used to see meteors every day during the night.
 
In addition to their curiosity, they had various questions which were responded to by Kai Staats as follows:-
 
Joyce Peter asked:
1. Why do we see meteors at night but during the day we cannot see meteors, does it mean that the meteors are not present in our atmosphere during day time?
 
Answer: Meteorites plummet through the atmosphere at all hours of the day and night. But by day we cannot see them in comparison to the bright light of the sun. This is similar to shining a torch by day, it is very difficult to see, but at night it is quite bright.
 
2. What are the objects made of meteors? what makes them looks like fiery stone?
 
Answer: They are in fact fiery stone! Meteors are made of rock and dust. Comets too are made of dust, but with more water ice. They are the original building blocks of our solar system, left-overs from the very early time when gravity brought the dust of our solar system together to form small nuggets, clumps, asteroids, comets, and eventually planets and their moons (many of which are asteroids captured by the gravity of the planets). Just as when you drive a car at high speed you can feel the wind pushing against the front glass, slowing the car, the air resists the movement of the meteor through friction. Friction produces heat. So much heat that the rock melts and glows. This is what we see. Keep in mind that while a car moves as 100 or more kilometers per hour, meteors are traveling at tens of thousands of kilometers per hour.
 
3. What effect do meteors have on living organisms if they fall to the ground?
 
Answer: Most meteors are the size of a grain of sand and never touch the ground. They burn up completely. Yes, a grain of sand so hot you can see it from far away! But the bigger meteors (size of a baseball or football or more) can reach the ground and impact. We know that the dinosaurs were wiped out due to a massive meteor impact 65 million years ago. It would have caused a massive fire to spread across the planet, followed by years of dust that blocked the sun.
 
 
Nearly all of the dinosaurs died out, leaving the birds we have today (yes, birds are the last remaining dinosaurs). With the dinosaurs gone, the mammals were allowed to diversify and prosper.
 
Much of the water on our planet arrived (and continues to arrive) through the impact of meteors (very little water) and comets (more water). If the meteorite is small, it only adds trace amounts of iron and other elements to our atmosphere, maybe to the ground if it impacts.
 
Meteor Crater, ArizonaI have attached two images: a) An artist painting of a meteor impact. If in fact, one this large were to hit our planet, it would destroy the entire planet. (top) b) A photograph of Meteor Crater, Arizona (just north of where I live) is a world-famous impact site of a meteor.
 
It is famous because it is so well preserved. The rock that made this giant hole was only a few meters in diameter, but traveling at incredibly high speed.
 
Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_Crater While meteors enter our atmosphere every day, the most recent, note-worthy impact was just a few years ago: Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelyabinsk_meteor
 
Miriam John asked: 4. When a meteor falls to the ground it stays on the ground or there are objects that sink into the ground and why?
 
Answer: Upon impact, it breaks into many small fragments. You can find these pieces if you know what you are looking for!
 
Peter Elieta asked:
 
5. What are the benefits of meteors in the lives of humans or other living things?
 
Answer: They add iron, water, and excitement and joy to our lives. Without meteors, you would not be asking these great questions!
 
6. How big are meteors? And why do the burning particles not fall to the ground as the mineral contains what minerals?
Answer: (see above)
 
7. Why do meteor showers occur in December each year and not other months? What is the secret in that month?
 
Answer: There are many meteor showers, happening all year long. As the Earth is moving in its orbit, it passes through dust and debris fields, year after year, decade after decade, just as you might go to visit a certain relative for particular holidays Here is a full explanation and list: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_shower  
 
8. Belinda Allen asked: What is the significance of meteorites in our world? Answer: (see above)
 
9. We hear in various news that a meteor is about to hit our planet? Did it not burn itself out of the way to the earth? Where did it threaten?
 
Answer: Astronomers are tracking tens of thousands of “near-Earth objects”, asteroids and comets that are considered close to our planet in their orbit. Some come by each year, some only once every dozen or even a hundred years. By carefully tracking them in space (using telescopes and a kind of radar) we can determine their orbital path and predict if they will hit the Earth.
 
Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_object
 
There are a few we are concerned about, and so defense systems are being designed to push them just a bit (using rockets or lasers), thus changing their orbit to miss the Earth.
 
With these few questions, we would like to express our sincere gratitude for the great help you are giving us in collaboration with our teacher in building our capacity to know our atmosphere as well as the various objects in the sky.
 
These are for sure great questions, built on the curiousity to know more.
 
Nchini Tanzania tuna Kimondo cha mbozi ambacho unaweza kusoma zaidi hapa.

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